Sir William Thompson designs and patents the first hydraulic crane. This crane was used to handle cargo at Newcastle docks with chains pulleys that allow for a 3: 1 ratio.
British engineer William M’Naught develops the first multistage steam engine.
In England, in Derby, the first hydraulic industrial lift operated by water pressure was built to allow the movement of mine personnel.
The German electric company Siemens and Halske is founded.
The Frenchman Marchecourt invents the first safety parachute used in the mines.
To Henry Waterman in New York City is given the invention of the “standing Rope Control” ie the control of the elevator by means of a rope driven by a person in the cabin (or on the floor in the case of hoist), rope that was regulating hydraulic valves
To remedy the insufficient water pressure of the city water network, Sir William Armstrong develops the first “accumulator” – made with a large diameter vertical piston that supports a huge wrought iron container filled with stones. The weight of the container, loaded on the piston and the weight of the water ensure a constant pressure supply up to 700 psi (47.6 ATM); Water veins pumped in the piston by a pump driven by a steam engine.
Boston’s George Fox and Company introduces the idea of self-locking worm gears to drive a drum hoist.
The American Elisha Graves Otis, perfects the cab safety system to prevent the cabin fall in the event of suspension ropes failure.
Always in the same year Elisha Graves Otis opens a hoist factory.
Elisha Graves Otis brings a platform with his security system installed, at the New York exhibition in the Crystal Palace, demonstrating the passenger’s safety traveling into elevator.
The presentation was of great impact and had a media resonance for that time; so wide that led to believe Elisha Grave Otis as the inventor of the elevator, when in reality he had only invented a security system for hoists. The true inventor of the complete lift for Passengers should instead be an homonymous: Otis Tufth. But the New York show event had such an emphasis and resonance to leave the belief that Elisha Otis had invented the elevator.
 Otis Tufts patent n°25061 del 1959; Elisha Graves Otis patent n°31128 del 1861
William H. Thompson and Eustus P. Morgan patent their “security door for warehouses”, a system of sliding or hinged doors placed in the opening of each floor. These doors heavily reduce the propagation of fire.
The first lift for public use was installed in the department store of 5 E.V. Haughwout and Company, Broadway New York City; The elevator, made by Elisha Otis is of the belt drive type with steam engine, a speed of 0.2 m / s and the safety system presented at the international exhibition. Unfortunately, the elevator having a cabin without walls, was not appreciated by customers and after three years it was replaced.
Otis Tufts Installs in a hotel its first lift with endless rack screw and enclosed cabin, operated by a steam engine. The building is the Fifth Avenue Hotel which is also the first hotel that had an elevator. This installation, extremely expensive, is also very safe for the time. The other only successive installation was in the Continental Hotel in Philadelphia. These elevators worked until 1870 and were a great attraction for hotels.
Nathan Names patents the first escalator, without handrails.
Otis Tufts patents his own endless screw operated elevator.
Augusto Stigler founded an engineering company in Milan. The first hydraulic lift was patented and installed in 1981 in the Stigler Tower in Milan. The first Stigler electric lift was installed in 1898.
The Italian Antonio Pacinotti builds the first dynamo based on the principles of Faraday; This dynamo remained only a non-marketed prototype.
Elisha Otis patent its hoist with open cabin and parachute security system.
The five-story Grosvenor Hotel in London’s Victoria Station is the first hotel to install elevators using the city’s water pressure. At the beginning the customers called them “ascending rooms”.
Otis Brothers (a company founded by Elisha Graves Otis’ sons) developed a new patented lift motor with two steam-powered vertical cylinders located under a crankshaft onto which a pulley is keyed. A belt of this pulley drives the winding drum located on the same plate anchored to the ceiling.
Otis Tufts abandons improvements on its vertical screw drive and focuses on five new patents aimed at safe lifting with multiple suspension ropes. In particular, it focuses on the equalization of two or more ropes, on the reduction of the bending of the ropes and on the more durable connection inside the drum.
Cities with major sea ports like New York are starting to have serious space problems for both goods and commercial activities and homes. The buildings on several floors dedicated to different needs begin to increase and it begins to become essential to have elevators to move vertically. This need for space leads to the explosion in the development of civil elevator technology.
The first funicular is built by the French Molinus and Pronier in Croix-Rousse, Lyon. Its slope was 16 degrees and it covered 466 meters.
Baker Street Station opens and London becomes the first city to develop an underground (tube) railway.